Title : Protein assembled nano-vehicle entrapping photosensitizer molecule: An exceptional strategy for targeted photodynamic therapy of lung carcinoma
Introduction: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been recognized as a minimally-invasive and safe form of therapeutic technique to treat cancer alternative to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Lung cancer treatment has always been considered as one of the most vital theme of clinical problems due to its complexity. The purpose of this study is to fabricate biocompatible, nontoxic metal nanoparticle and functionalize it using photosensitizer for target specific light- induced treatment of lung carcinoma.
Method: Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have been synthesized using bacterial intracellular protein and then developed a water soluble nanohybrid by attaching a hydrophobic photosensitizer, Protoporphyrin-IX (PpIX). The AuNP and nanohybrid (AuNP-PpIX) have been characterized using UV-Vis & steady state fluorescence spectroscopy, DLS, FTIR and different electron microscopic techniques. Green light induced anti-cancer efficiency of nanohybrid was investigated on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549). Cellular analyses were studied under flow cytometric and microscopic platform.
Results: The significant color change and increase in hydrodynamic diameter indicated that PpIX was attached to the hydrophobic protein shell of AuNP (15-25 nm). The nanohybrid showed excellent green light induced anti-cancer efficiency at very low concentration (IC50= 124.66 nM) against A549 cell line through intracellular ROS generation. The nanohybrid showed better efficiency than PpIX only. Green light induced alteration in hydrodynamic diameter and emission intensity decrease of nanohybrid in different time point, confirmed the light triggered drug delivery. Cellular morphological change and internalization of nanohybrid were observed under confocal laser scanning microscope and TEM. The photo induced anti-cancer effect of nanohybrid was associated with apoptotic pathway which was confirmed under flow cytometric platform.
Discussion: This research work unfolds a great possibility towards the synthesis of highly efficient nanohybrid utilizing nontoxic biosynthesized AuNP for lung cancer treatment through photodynamic therapy. The developed nanomedicine is expected to find relevance in clinical anti-cancer PDT models in near future.
Audience take away:
Lung cancer is considered as one of the most detrimental health hazards due to its complexity and responsible for almost a third of all cancer related death throughout the world. Currently, a variety of conventional therapeutic methods such as surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, are widely used to treat lung cancer clinically. However, these conventional therapeutic strategies are associated with the risk of metastatic re-occurrence or spread throughout the entire margin and outside the tumor site. Lack of target specificity damages the outside healthy tissue in chemotherapy, whereas radiotherapy generates burned skin, fatigue and breathing problems in patients. These unsatisfactory outcome of conventional therapy along with occurrence of drug-resistance suggest urgent development of alternative therapeutic strategies imparting target specificity with minimal side-effects. Here, an exceptional approach has been provided to treat lung cancer.
• So, we hope it will be very much interesting and attractive for the audiences that lung cancer or any cancer related disease can be treated more efficiently through unconventional way.
• Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been identified to be a modern and minimally-invasive form of therapy used in the treatment of various types of cancer. In spite of some limitation like every therapy, PDT is still most promising therapy for the treatment of cancer due to its efficiency, selectivity and minimal side effect. Hope this therapeutic approach will be beneficial for researcher or other faculty member to solve their cancer related problems.
• Here, we explore a unique synthesis approach of nontoxic protein assembled nano-vehicle entrapping photosensitizer molecule as a nanomedicine for the treatment of lung cancer. The developed nanomedicine is expected to find relevance in clinical anti-cancer PDT models in near future. Moreover, we hope, it can be produce in large scale in pharmaceutical industry to treat any type of cancer related diseases in future.