Title : Characterization and optimization of batch adsorption study of pollutants parameters of POME using synthesized adsorbent media
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a high strength agro-allied wastewater containing both organic pollutants and heavy metals. The discharge of POME into the environment without adequate treatment contributes to diseases affecting humans and aquatic lives. However, there is the necessity to reduce the pollutants to a very low level of discharge to reduce the impact of the toxic effect of the pollutants on the environment and the aquatic population. The conventional approach for the treatment of POME is expensive compared to the method of adsorption. The method of adsorption has shown to be cost and time effective for research. Thus, the objective of this study was to prepare composite adsorbent from activated coconut shell carbon (ACSC), activated cow bone powder (ACBP) and zeolite for the treatment of POME using the optimum particle size obtained in a batch adsorption study. The characterization of the ACSC, ACBP and zeolite was obtained using pendant drop contact angle experiment. The result illustrated that the contact angles of the ACSC, ACBP and zeolite respectively were 105.20o, 95.70o and 25. 20o. The result of the contact angles showed that activated coconut shell carbon and activated cow bone powder were hydrophobic materials while the zeolite was hydrophilic. The investigation of the chemical composition of the materials using energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) indicated that the major elements of both ACSC and ACBP were predominantly C, Ca2+ and O and Si for zeolite and C, Si, O, Na, Mg, Ca and P as the major elements on the surface of the composite while the XRF showed that the composite contained CaO and SiO2 as the major compounds.
The optimal batch adsorption of COD and NH3-N was obtained at under fixed condition of pH 7, 105 minutes contact time at 150 rpm shaking speed and 150 μm particle size for ACSC, ACBP and zeolite. The prepared composite adsorbent contained functional groups of CH, C=C, C-O-C, OH using the Fourier transform irradiation (FT-IR) analysis. The optimal operation parameters of the adsorption process for the reduction of COD and NH3-N using the central composite design (RSM) was recorded at pH 10, 50 rpm of shaking speed for 2 h and by using 3 mm of composite particle size and 125 gL-1 of the adsorbent at initial concentration of POME of 1 ml per 500 ml volumetric flask. The results revealed that the investigated factors evidently induced the reduction of the parameters.