Nanotechnologies the approach means purposeful regulation of properties of objects on molecular and above molecular a level (0,1-100 nanometers), determining fundamental parameters of physical objects. It takes place in sciences about the Earth in sphere oil&gas recovery. Prospects for the development of hydrocarbon energy depend on the cost of oil and gas production, the cost of oil and gas chemistry, cost of hydrocarbon transportation. The applications of nanotechnology in the extraction, processing and transport of hydrocarbons are considered. Nanotechnology operations for enhanced oil recovery (NTOEOR) include operations (methods, techniques) governed by nanoscale phenomena, or which employ nanoscale particles. Examples of the use of nanotechnology in the oil and gas industry are given. Foam systems stabilized by nanoparticles have proven highly effective in reducing the water cut in oil and gas production wells: has achieving 15-20 percent reductions in water cuts and 1,5-1,7 times oil production growth, as well as providing 500-10,000 tons of extra crude per treated well. At the gas field technological effect was additional 16 million m3 per single mining well. Adding nano-dispersive modifiers to cement can enhance the strength of concrete and foam concrete 2.5-3 times. Economic calculations have shown that the use of nanotechnology in the production of gas will reduce the cost of their production by more than 20%, which will significantly affect the development of hydrocarbon energy. Indeed, the advantages of green energy point to the cost of energy and its eco-friendliness. Recent events in the world under cold weather conditions have shown both the need to conserve hydrocarbon energy and the need to improve green energy technologies. Therefore, the development of hydrocarbon energy and its share in the global energy system will depend on the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon energy.