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10th Edition of World Nanotechnology Conference

March 10-12, 2025

March 10 -12, 2025 | Rome, Italy
World Nano 2022

Junaid Alam

Junaid Alam, Speaker at Nanomaterials Conference
National University of Science and Technology, Russian Federation
Title : Excellent soft magnetic properties in Co-based alloys after heat treatment at temperatures near the crystallization onset


Thermal treatments of amorphous alloys are known to cause structural relaxation which is followed by an evaluation of the magnetic anisotropy and saturation magnetostriction. In this work, we investigated the effect of annealing with a temperature close to the onset of the crystallization on the magnetic hysteresis properties of glass-coated amorphous microwires of Co-rich compositions with a nearly zero magnetostriction. The annealing process was performed on the wires by two methods: dc current annealing and conventional annealing in finance (at 475-490 oC for 30 min). The current intensities were chosen to ensure similar annealing conditions. The annealing temperatures were higher than the Curie temperature (~360 oC) and slightly lower than the primary crystallization temperature (510 oC). We have demonstrated a sharp change in the shape of the magnetic hysteresis after annealing which is caused by the change in the magnetostriction.

Typically, amorphous microwires of Co-rich compositions with negative magnetostriction are regarded as excellent soft magnetic materials suitable for large and sensitive magnetoimpedance (MI) [1]. A well-defined circumferential anisotropy could be established in these wires by a proper choice of composition, geometry, and annealing treatments, which increases the MI ratio up to a hundred percent in characteristic fields of a few Oersted [2]. The high sensitivity of impedance to low magnetic fields makes amorphous ferromagnetic microwires a promising material for the construction of different sensor systems.

In the present work, the transformation of the sign of magnetostriction in amorphous microwires of composition: Co71Fe5B11Si10Cr3 (diameter: D/d = 29/25 μm) and Co66.6Fe4.28B11.51Si14.48Ni1.44Mo1.69 (diameter: D/d = 35/25 µm) was established after annealing in a narrow temperature range near the crystallization onset. This restores soft magnetic properties and ensures high temperature stability of all magnetic parameters. The wires under the study were produced by quenching and drawing technique (also referred to as modified Taylor-Ulitovskiy method). The choice of composition is justified by specific magnetoelastic properties with near zero magnetostriction of the order 10-7.

It is known that annealing without applied stress can produce short-range order relaxation and consequently releases some frozen-in stresses and improves soft magnetic properties. In the present paper, we propose current and conventional annealing at relatively high temperatures slightly lower than the primary crystallization temperature. This causes nano crystallization and sharp change in the saturation magnetostriction. Therefore, we proposed a method of controllable change in magnetic anisotropy by changing the sign of magnetostriction.

In particular, this results in a change in the shape of magnetic hysteresis and enhances the sensitivity of MI at microwave frequencies.

The hysteresis loop of samples annealed by dc current and by conventional annealing are shown in Figures 1, 2. The annealing at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature increases the saturation magnetostriction and induces an axial easy anisotropy. A sharp change in the behavior of the hysteresis loops occurs after annealing with temperatures near the crystallization point, which can be explained by a change in the sign of the magnetostriction constant from small positive to large negative.


J. Alam is an active research engineer working in the department of Technology of Electronic Materials at the National University of Science and Technology ‘NUST’ MISIS, based in Moscow (Russia) since 2017. He completed his BE in Electronics in 2012 from Hamdard University, Karachi (Pakistan). In 2016, he involved in scientific research in the field of magnetism and its applications during his MS degree from NUST MISIS. He is presently a PhD student in NUST MISIS and involves in scientific and technological activities in the field of Soft Magnetic Materials. Current fields of interest: amorphous magnetic micro-nanowires, giant magnetoimpedance ‘GMI’, magnetoelastic effect, stress-sensitive MI, high-performance magnetic sensor devices. He has published more than 3 review articles in international journals and participated in several international magnetic conferences.