Title : Nanotechnology and the controlled release of natural antimicrobials
Microbial infections are still a major threat to human and animal health, mainly due to microbial resistance and tolerance to antimicrobial compounds. Antimicrobial resistance increases hospitalization periods, therapy costs and mortality rates. Currently, we are facing an unbalance battle against multidrug resistant microorganism where few antibiotics are effective. Resistant microorganisms have emerged as consequence of the intensive use of antimicrobials and horizontal gene transfer mediated by mobile genetic elements. Researchers have been developing innovative solutions able to modulate microbial virulence, prevent the formation of biofilms and reduce the risk of resistant microorganism selection. Thus, pharmaceutical research, both academia and industrial, are experiencing difficulties on the discovery and development of new drugs, mainly due to the demanding, time-consuming, and expensive tasks required to put a new molecule on the market. Thus, optimization of existing formulations by enhancing their therapeutic effectiveness has been used as a viable and less costly alternative.
Nanotechnology can improve currently existing therapies or create novel strategies to improve the efficacy of antibiotic therapy, such as drug-delivery systems, antimicrobial, and antifouling surfaces. Nanosystems can create powerful alternative approaches with increased antimicrobial efficiency, fine tuning of drug release over extended periods of time, circumventing resistance mechanisms and mitigate patient toxicity.
Cyclodextrins, truncated-shaped oligosaccharides, have taken an active role in the development of new delivery systems capable of meeting the specific needs necessary to enhance molecules’ therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, they have been used as drug carriers to improve solubility, stability, and bioavailability of bioactive molecules. Moreover, cyclodextrins can modulate the release of a wide range of drugs through the inclusion complex formation.
- Identify the major limitations of delivery antimicrobials, nowdays.
- Recognized the new strategies to improve the delivery of antimicrobial compounds.
- How cyclodextrins can be used to improve hydrogels.