Traditionally, polymer capsules have been used and proposed for stem cell delivery to the body to treat numerous diseases due to their ease of manufacturing, low expense, and relative acceptance in the body. However, polymer capsules used for stem cell delivery have proven problematic due to a lack of neovascularization bringing nutrients to the cells and removing cellular waste as well as promoting inflammation which clogs capsule pores necessary for the stem cells to live. This study introduces through-porous nano metals as improved stem cell delivery devices. Specifically, complete through nano-pores were created in several metals (such as Ti and stainless steel) which were shown to reduce inflammation, promote neovascularization, and selectively release analogs of insulin (for diabetes applications) while restricting the passage of IgG (which would initiate an inflammatory response). For some of the metallic membranes created, due to their nanoscale pore size, complete inhibition of IgG adsorption and infiltration was measured. Further modification of the surface of these metallic stem cell delivery devices to generate nanoscale roughness proved to inhibit inflammatory cell (such as macrophage) functions. Lastly, in vivo studies demonstrated greater neovascularization up to such metallic nanoporous membranes necessary to maintain encapsulated stem cell viability. In this manner, this in vitro and in vivo study introduced brand new unique through nanoporous metal stem cell delivery capsules that outperform existing polymers and, thus, may revolutionize the use of stem cell delivery for numerous diseases.
Audience Take Away:
- What is stem cell delivery
- How one can improve stem cell delivery through nanotechnology
- What is the future for the use of metallic nanoporous membranes in biomaterials and healthcare