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Title: Challenges of Nanotechniques Employed for Biomedical Applications

Xing-Jie Liang

Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Biography

Professor Xing-Jie Liang got Ph.D at National Key Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He finished his postdoc with Dr. Michael M. Gottesman (Deputy Director of NIH, USA) for 5 years at Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Then, he worked as a Research Fellow at Surgical Neurology Branch, NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Strokes, NIH). He was an Assistant professor at Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Howard University. Professor Liang currently is deputy director of Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China and a principal investigator at Center for Excellence of Nanoscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Professor Liang is a founder member of International Society of Nanomedicine, member of American Association for Cancer Research, member of American Society of Cell Biology and president of nanobiophysics committees of Chinese Biophysics Society. Professor Liang is current Editor-in-Chief of 《Current Drug Delivery》, Associate Editors of 《Biomaterials》 and 《Biophysics Report》; Advisory editorial board member of 《ACS Nano》; Editorial member of 《Biomaterials Research》, 《Theranostics》 and guest editor of 《Biotechnology Advances》 and 《Science in China: Life Sciences》.

Prof. Liang has published over 270 publications; H-index is over 59. His research interests are in elucidating mechanisms to improve nanomedicinal bioavailability by nanotechnology in vitro and in vivo, and novel strategies to increase therapeutic effect on cancers and infective diseases. Developing drug delivery strategies for prevention/treatment of cancers are current programs ongoing in Professor Liang's lab based on understanding of basic physio-chemical and biological processes of nanomedicine.

Abstract

Various of novel nanotechniques were developed for biomedical application in decades years. Nanotechnology has been widely used in the development of new strategies for drug delivery and cancer therapy. There are still big gap and great challenges for bionanotechnology translated from bench to bedside. Adaptive treatment tolerance (ATT) is one of the main obstacles of nanotechnological applications in the therapeutic failure of clinical treatments. Several factors in treatment tolerance include MDR-associated proteins overexpressed in cells, inactivation of therapeutic molecules in targeted tissues, invalidation of treatments in patients, etc. This clinical obstacle was broadly explored, and different molecular mechanisms were clarified with enhanced repair mechanisms of drug induced DNA damage, lowered tumor extracellular pH, alteration of cell cycle check points, blockage of apoptosis pathway and poor tumor vasculature, respectively. There is still no significantly clinical improvement so far. Compared to traditional drug delivery systems, nanoscale drug delivery systems (NDDS) have greater potential in many areas, such as multiple targeting functionalization, combined drugs delivery, longer circulation time and systemic control release. NDDS incorporating stimulus-responsive biopolymer have remarkable properties which allow them to bypass biological barriers and achieve targeted intracellular drug delivery. Some of these have been translated from the bench to clinical application and approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of various cancerous diseases. With further development of biocompatible nanoformulations, it might be possible to design even more promising multiple-responsive NDDS synergistic for combined drug delivery and efficient cancer therapy in the future. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery is expected to bring new hope for cancer treatment by enhancing anticancer drug efficacy, overcoming drug resistance and reducing drug toxicity. This presentation describes the characteristic features of tumor resistance to classical chemotherapy and their mechanisms with the aid of nanoparticles for the development of newer drug delivery systems to overcome ATT in vitro and vivo.