Nanotechnology is the development of molecular-scale functional systems. Nanotechnology is being used in a variety of ways to improve the environment and produce more efficient and cost-effective energy, including reducing pollution during the manufacturing of materials, producing solar cells at a competitive cost, cleaning volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air cleaning up organic chemicals polluting groundwater. Nanomaterials and manufacturing methods have found their way into a wide range of applications. They have found use in solar cells, fuel cells, secondary batteries, supercapacitors, air and water purification, and the elimination of indoor and outdoor air pollutants. Clean energy and environmental applications frequently necessitate the creation of new nanomaterials capable of providing the shortest reaction paths thereby improving reaction kinetics. Understanding nanoparticles' physicochemical, structural, microstructural, and surface properties is crucial for achieving the needed efficiency, cycle life, and sustainability in a variety of technological applications.