Title : Exploring antifungal potential of microwave-irradiated green synthesized silver nanoparticles by cassia fistula leave extracts for controlling fusarium wilt in tomatoes
Agriculture sector at global scale, challenges major throwback annually due to plant diseases. Current disease management strategies predominantly rely on application of fatal pesticides which poses threat not only to human being but also on environment. So, the recent scenario demands some innovative measures to check these losses and enhance food security for future generations. Nanotechnology has emerged as a novel interdisciplinary field with a great potential to be involved in agriculture for enhancing productivity and reducing pesticides toxicity. The aim of the existing research was to evaluate antifungal potential of microwave-assisted green synthesized silver nanoparticles from aqueous leaf extract of Cassia fistula (CLE) against Fusarium wilt of tomato. Biosynthesized CLE-AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, DLS, SEM-EDX and TEM analysis. Uv-vis spectra indicates peak at 427 nm indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles, varied with AgNO3 concentration (2 mM), amount of CLE (5ml), pH (8) and microwave irradiations (45 secs). TEM exhibited spherical shaped nanoparticles ranges from 12-46 nm with an average particle size of 27.5 nm. SEM revealed the capping of silver nanoparticles with the CLE constituents, confirmed by FTIR analysis. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies showed efficient activity of CLE- AgNPs against Fusarium oxysporum, causal agent of tomato wilt. 65-95% mycelial inhibition was observed as compared to control during in-vitro studies while significant increase was noted for plant growth parameter after treatment with silver nanoparticles under greenhouse conditions. Increase in photosynthetic pigments (Chl ‘a’,’ b’and carotenoids) and quantities of defence related biochemicals as total phenolics, Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO), Phenyl Ammonia Lyase (PAL) and Peroxidase (PO) enzymes were examined under various concentrations of CLE-AgNPs by calorimetric methods. Further studies intended to understand the toxicity mechanism of CLE-AgNPs to indicate the physical-injury to the cell membrane of hyphae and spores of F. oxysporum were observed by Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fluorescence microscopy was employed to specifies intracellular ROS generation in the mycelium. Altogether this investigation proves that green synthesized CLE-AgNPs are potent fungicide against F. oxysporum and becoming an alternative antifungal agent opens a new research subject by integrating nanotechnology into phytopathology.
Audience take away:
• Audience will be learned how nanoparticles will be integrate in field of phytopathology which encompasses synthesis, characterization and mode of action in plants and microorganisms. They will be beneficial by adopting the way of synthesis and takes an advantage to utilize that nanoparticles for various applications.
• This research will helpful in agriculture and other research sectors that how nanotechnology helps in managing plant diseases through eco-friendly approach.
• In sustainable agriculture, environmental protection from pollution is the crucial target for trade, and nanomaterials provide an assurance of better management and conservation of inputs to plant production.
• This research will be helpful to get an idea of replacing of toxic pesticides with green synthesized Nano formulations as they show efficient results by controlling disease and enhances plant health.